Iowan seeks to limit a Fourth Amendment exception in appeal to U.S. Supreme Court

By: Rox Laird on November 28th, 2018

The U.S. Supreme Court on Friday will consider whether it will hear an appeal from an Iowa man who argues his drunk-driving conviction was the product of an unconstitutional search and seizure.

The appeal focuses on the reach of what’s known as a “community caretaking” exception to the Fourth Amendment in situations where, as in Coffman’s case, a law-enforcement officer stops to assist a motorist. The exception allows a warrantless seizure based on an officer’s reasonable belief that an emergency exists or an individual needs assistance.

Coffman’s drunk-driving arrest occurred after a Story County deputy sheriff pulled behind Coffman’s vehicle stopped on the shoulder of a rural highway in the early morning hours. The officer switched on his flashing lights, approached the vehicle to see if the occupants needed assistance and initiated the arrest after smelling alcohol in the car.

U.S. Supreme Court rejects appeal from an Iowa surrogate mother seeking custody of the child

By: Rox Laird on October 3rd, 2018

The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal of an Iowa Supreme Court ruling on the enforceability of a contract signed by a woman who acted as a surrogate mother for an Iowa couple unable to conceive a child of their own.

The Iowa Supreme Court ruled on Feb. 16 that the contract was valid, that the surrogate mother and her husband are not the child’s genetic parents and that the District Court correctly awarded custody of the child to the biological father.

U.S. Supreme Court to consider an appeal from an Iowa surrogate mother seeking custody of the child

By: Rox Laird on September 20th, 2018

On Monday, the U.S. Supreme Court is scheduled to consider whether to accept the appeal of an Iowa Supreme Court ruling on the enforceability of a contract signed by a woman who acted as a surrogate mother for an Iowa couple unable to conceive a child of their own.

The surrogate mother, identified as T.B. in court documents, was impregnated with embryos fertilized with the intended biological father’s sperm and ova from an anonymous donor. She changed her mind after the child was born, and sued the Cedar Rapids couple in Linn County District Court, arguing that the surrogacy contract was unconstitutional and that her parental rights should not have been terminated.

U.S. Supreme Court Justice Gorsuch shares his views on preserving the rule of law at Des Moines conference

By: Rox Laird on August 20th, 2018

Neil Gorsuch, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, made a case for defending the rule of law in a conversation a Q-and-A-format conversation with Lavenski Smith, Chief Judge of the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, at the Eighth Circuit conference in Des Moines Friday.

Justice Gorsuch said he worries about preserving the roles of independent judges and juries.

“The rule of law here is really one of the wonders of the world,” he said, and it “separates this country from almost any other on Earth. Go to some other countries and see the judges and the pressures they face, and the challenges the face – their safety, their security, their ability to make independent decisions.”

“I think the right to have an independent judge tell you what the law is, no matter who you are, is one of the great liberties and the genius of the Constitution.”

Gorsuch said the rule of law in this country means that a defendant who is unpopular, a member of a minority group or a person holding a minority religious belief “can go before a judge who is not going to defer, delegate, or lower the law to someone else, who is going to enforce your rights as equally as anyone else’s. That’s a powerful guarantee. And I hope we never lose that.”

U.S. Supreme Court denies reduced criminal sentences in appeal from Iowa

By: Rox Laird on June 5th, 2018

The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal from five Iowa criminal defendants who argued for shortened prison terms based on a recent change in federal sentencing guidelines.

The five defendants pleaded guilty to drug conspiracy charges that carried mandatory-minimum sentences of 20 years each. But because they provided “substantial assistance” to the criminal investigation, the government recommended sentence reductions, and U.S. District Judge Mark Bennett of Sioux City imposed prison terms ranging from 84 months to 264 months for the five.

Three years later the defendants sought reductions of their prison sentences following changes in sentencing guidelines approved by the U.S. Sentencing Commission, which were made retroactive.

Bennett denied the reductions, however, because the sentences he imposed below the 20-year mandatory minimum were based on a calculation factoring in the value of each defendant’s assistance to the government’s criminal investigation, not on the original U.S. Sentencing Commission guidelines.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit upheld Bennett’s decision on appeal, and the U.S. Supreme Court in a unanimous ruling handed down Monday agreed with both.

“In each of petitioners’ cases, the top end of the [Sentencing Commission guidelines range] fell below the applicable mandatory minimum sentence, and so the court concluded that the mandatory minimum superseded the guidelines range,” Justice Samuel Alito Jr. wrote for the Supreme Court. “Thus, in all five cases, the court discarded the advisory ranges in favor of the mandatory minimum” to calculate the sentences.

U.S. Supreme Court denies DeCosters’ prison sentence appeals

By: Rox Laird on May 22nd, 2017

Two executives of an Iowa-based egg production company apparently will serve time in federal prison for their part in the 2010 salmonella outbreak that resulted in nearly 2,000 reported illnesses and the recall of a half-million eggs.

The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday denied appeals of their federal prison sentences by Austin (“Jack”) DeCoster, the owner of Quality Egg, and his son Peter, the company’s chief operating officer.

Both DeCosters were sentenced to three months in federal prison and ordered to pay a $100,000 fine after they pleaded guilty in U.S. District Court in Sioux City to misdemeanor violations as “responsible corporate officers” under the federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act.

The DeCosters appealed their sentences to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, arguing it would violate due process and be cruel and unusual to send them to prison.

While they acknowledged the company’s criminal violations for wrongdoing by employees, including falsifying inspection records, mislabeling expiration dates, and bribing a USDA inspector, the DeCosters argued that prison sentences were unconstitutional without evidence that they personally participated in the criminal violations or intended to violate the law.

A three-judge panel of the St. Louis-based Court of Appeals rejected those arguments. The panel (with one dissent) held that as responsible corporate officers the DeCosters were liable, not for the acts or omissions of other company employees, but rather for their own failure to act to prevent or remedy violations of the federal food-safety law.

On Monday the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Eighth Circuit without comment.

Amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs were filed with the Supreme Court in support of the DeCosters by the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, the National Association of Manufacturers, and the Washington Legal Foundation.

(See our earlier posts for more background on the DeCosters appeal.)

U.S. Supreme Court denies appeal in Iowa City murder case

By: Rox Laird on January 23rd, 2017

The U.S. Supreme Court Monday denied an appeal of an Iowa Supreme Court ruling that ordered a new trial for Justin Alexander Marshall who was convicted of first-degree murder for the 2009 shooting of an Iowa City landlord.

The Iowa Supreme Court in June ruled that the trial court erred in allowing testimony of a jailhouse informant. The Court concluded that the informant, acting as an agent of the State, “plainly deliberately elicited information from Marshall.” Thus, that testimony cannot be used against Marshall without violating his right to counsel under the Sixth Amendment.

The decision, which was handed down June 30, on the Court’s final day of the 2015-16 term, covered nearly 100 pages. That included the majority opinion by Justice Brent Appel (joined by Chief Justice Mark Cady and Justices David Wiggins and Daryl Hecht) and a dissent by Justice Edward Mansfield (joined by Justices Thomas Waterman and Bruce Zager).

Iowa Attorney General Tom Miller petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to review the ruling of the Iowa Supreme Court. The Court, without comment, denied the appeal Monday.

That presumably means Alexander will be retried, as Johnson County Attorney Janet Lyness earlier told the Cedar Rapids Gazette that was her intent.

SCOTUS ruling on blood-alcohol tests leads Iowa Supreme Court to delay boating-while-intoxicated case until next term

By: Administrator on June 24th, 2016

By Ryan Koopmans

As Rox wrote yesterday, the Iowa Supreme Court is (or at least was) expected to release a decision next week in State v. Pettijohn, a case about (among other things) whether Iowa’s implied-consent law–the law that punishes drivers who refuse to take a blood-alcohol test–is constitutional.  The case was argued in September, which makes it the Court’s longest outstanding case.  And because the Iowa Supreme Court has been sharply divided over search-and-seizure issues, it is also one of the most anticipated rulings of the term.  

Or at least it was.  Yesterday, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Birchfield v. North Dakota that these so-called implied-consent statutes don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when it comes to breathalyzer tests, but that they do violate the Fourth Amendment when it comes to blood tests, unless the police get a warrant.  So you can be punished for refusing to take a breath test; but you can’t be punished for refusing a blood test.

In light of that ruling, the Iowa Supreme Court has put its decision in Pettijohn on hold.  Yesterday afternoon, Chief Justice Mark Cady issued an order stating that the parties (Dale Pettijohn and the State of Iowa) must submit additional briefs to the Court that “address the impact of the Birchfield decision on the issues in this case.”  And they have until August 1 to do so. 

Pettijohn took a breath test; not a blood test.  So if anything, Birchfield is likely to cut against him.  But the Iowa Supreme Court could decide the case differently under the Iowa Constitution; and they’ve done that very thing several times the past five years.  But Birchfield could have just switched the vote from “reverse” (Pettijohn wins) to “affirm” (Pettijohn loses). So it might be a case of bad timing for Pettijohn, who thought he was going to get a decision next week.

Pettijohn’s case is different than Birchfield, though, in that he was boating while drinking rather than driving while drinking.  And he says that matters, because (in his view) driving is a privilege and using public waterways is a right.  We’ll see if that makes a difference.

In any event, we won’t likely know until sometime next fall when the justices return for the 2016-2017 term.

Get back in here! U.S. Supreme Court rejects Eighth Circuit’s “no recalling a jury” rule.

By: Administrator on June 9th, 2016

By Ryan Leemkuil

This blog has previously covered the long-running dispute between former Iowa law school dean Carolyn Jones and Teresa Wagner, a former law school employee who claims she was passed over for a job due to political bias. Most recently, we covered the Eighth Circuit’s 2014 ruling that the district court did not have the power to recall the jurors to render a verdict minutes after they had been discharged. Noting the risk of outside influence, the Eighth Circuit thought a bright line rule was best: Once a court discharges the jury and they leave the courtroom, a jury can no longer render a verdict. In today’s world of “instant individualized electronic communication,” the Eighth Circuit explained, a clear rule “offers better guidance than an amorphous rule that turns on whether jurors in fact became available for or were susceptible to outside influences or remained within total control of the court.” Jones, who was on the losing end of that ruling, asked the Supreme Court to review the case, but the Court declined early last year.

Today, however, the Supreme Court addressed the issue in another case and rejected the Eighth Circuit’s bright line rule. In Dietz v. Bouldin, the Court adopted a multi-factor test to determine whether a discharged jury may be recalled to do further work on a case. Those factors include the delay between discharge and recall, whether the jurors interacted with any non-jurors, and the nature of any courtroom reaction to the initial verdict. Rather than impose any “categorical bar” to recalling a jury, the Supreme Court directed district courts to “cautiously” and “carefully” apply these factors to decide whether a jury may be recalled.

Two dissenting justices—Justice Thomas, joined by Justice Kennedy—preferred the Eighth Circuit’s bright line rule. Echoing the Eighth Circuit’s concerns in Wagner, the dissent reasoned that a clear rule was preferable in “today’s world of cellphones, wireless Internet, and 24/7 news coverage,” where jurors may easily come across prejudicial information after discharge. The majority’s various factors, on the other hand, will only produce more litigation: “Is one hour too long? How about two hours or two days? Does a single Internet search by a juror preclude recalling the entire jury?” An occasional unnecessary “redo,” in the dissent’s view, is preferable to repeated litigation trying to answer these questions.

Dietz won’t matter for the Wagner case—the case was ultimately retried and Wagner lost. But litigators should be on notice: A jury’s discharge might just be temporary.

*Ryan Leemkuil is legal counsel at Fareway  Stores and before that was an attorney at Nyemaster Goode. 

Iowa trucking company gets unanimous U.S. Supreme Court victory

By: Rox Laird on May 20th, 2016

A sexual harassment lawsuit against Cedar Rapids trucking company CRST that has bounced around the federal courts for more than a decade took yet another bounce at the U.S. Supreme Court Thursday.

The history of this case is so contorted that the Supreme Court devoted 11 pages of the 16-page opinion to a recitation of the background. The court’s legal discussion was much more succinct, however: The result was in favor of the trucking company, which now stands to gain more than $4 million in lawyer’s fees after emerging victorious in its protracted legal battle with the federal government.

The case began in 2005 when driver trainee Monika Starke filed an employment discrimination complaint with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), alleging she was sexually harassed by two CRST drivers during training.

The EEOC filed suit against CRST not only on Starke’s behalf, but on behalf of more than 270 women claiming to have suffered similar harassment.

That suit was ultimately pared back down to just Starke’s complaint by U.S. District Judge Linda Reade, in the Northern District of Iowa, who ruled that the federal employment commission had taken unwarranted shortcuts to bootstrap one case into a larger class action.

Although CRST resolved Starke’s complaint in a $50,000 settlement, the Cedar Rapids trucking company sought to recover legal fees it had accumulated during the years it had successfully fought to eliminate the other EEOC complaints. Judge Reade agreed and awarded the company more than $4.5 million in legal fees and expenses.

The Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, which has jurisdiction over Iowa and six other Midwest states, reversed Reade’s ruling. The appeals court determined that federal law provides for fee recovery only by the party that wins a federal civil rights case on the legal merits. The appeals court held that the trucking company had prevailed not on the merits but on procedural issues.

The U.S. Supreme Court, in a decision handed down Thursday, disagreed.

Writing for the unanimous court, Justice Anthony Kennedy said “common sense” dictates legal fees be awarded to the prevailing party whether it wins on merits or other grounds. A win is a win.

“There is no indication that Congress intended that defendants should be eligible to recover attorney’s fees only when courts dispose of claims on the merits,” Kennedy wrote. “The congressional policy regarding the exercise of district court discretion in the ultimate decision whether to award fees does not distinguish between merits-based and nonmerits-based judgments.”

Alas, that does not mean the end of this case.

Although Kennedy noted that it has been 10 years since Starke originally filed her complaint, and the case has already produced “protracted and expensive litigation on the fee issue,” a number of questions remain unresolved.

Thus, the justices sent the case back to the Eighth Circuit, once again.

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On Brief is devoted to appellate litigation, with a focus on the Iowa Supreme Court, the Iowa Court of Appeals, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit.